Thursday, September 21, 2017

[Volcano_Vista_HS] Daily Announcements Thursday, Sept 21st

Good Morning Hawks


Today is THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 21, 2017


Underclassmen your PICTURES are here. Stop by the activities office during lunch to pick up your pictures or your proofs.


Buy a link for our chain to help support the Rio Grande Downs Syndrome association. UNIFIED HAWKS AND SENATE are selling links all week. We are in competition with Cibola, Eldorado, Highland and Manzano. So far we have raised over $1000.00.


ATTENTION DECA. Please don't forget we have campus clean-up on TODAY. We will meet in Mr. Colburn's room at 2:30. We will also have a DECA meeting Friday morning at 7:00 in Mr. Colburn's room. See you there!


DODGEBALL:  Top 8 teams will advance to quarterfinals TODAY and Semifinals and Finals on FridaySo come out to the gym and CHEER ON THE WINNER.


It's that time again WING SQUAD members for our monthly meeting. We have several community service opportunities coming up the end of this month and into October. Please meet in Mrs. Bustamante's room H208 at lunch on Thursday 9/21 to sign up.


Attention Studentswe have a STUDENT AMBASSADOR program that helps to create a positive climate at Volcano Vista High School. Our first meeting of the year will be Tuesday, September 26 at lunch in room G107.





BOYS SOCCER: will play RIO RANCHO at 3:30.

GIRLS SOCCER: will play at RIO RANCHO at 6

FOOTBALL: will play Atrisco Heritage at 7 at community stadium. We are the home team.




XC: will run in the Academy Invite at 3



VOLLEYBALL: will play West Mesa at 2:30


TOMORROW is College t-shirt day. Wear your favorite team shirt.


And remember

As always

It's Great to be a Hawk


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Tuesday, September 19, 2017

[californiadisasters] M7.1 PUEBLA, MEXICO 18.6 -98.4 (3818c)

On the 32nd anniversary of the 1985 Mexico City Earthquake, a new devastating earthquake has struck Mexico City. With CCTV & cell phones there is already a wealth of footage of the quake happening and/or of its immediate aftermath which includes at least two of a separate large building collapses as they happen. Five deaths reported so far but that is a low number of course. I'm sure Urban Search & Rescue Teams from California will be sent there I'm sure.

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: USGS ENS <>
Date: Tue, Sep 19, 2017 at 12:03 PM
Subject: 2017-09-19 18:14:39 (M7.1) PUEBLA, MEXICO 18.6 -98.4 (3818c)


Preliminary Earthquake Report
Magnitude 7.1
  • 19 Sep 2017 18:14:39 UTC
  • 19 Sep 2017 13:14:39 near epicenter
  • 19 Sep 2017 10:14:39 standard time in your timezone
Location 18.584N 98.399W
Depth 51 km
  • 8 km (5 miles) ESE (111 degrees) of Iz�car, Puebla, Mexico
  • 22 km (14 miles) ENE (71 degrees) of Atencingo, Puebla, Mexico
  • 36 km (22 miles) ENE (75 degrees) of Axochiapan, Morelos, Mexico
  • 56 km (35 miles) SSW (202 degrees) of Puebla, Puebla, Mexico
  • 123 km (76 miles) SE (139 degrees) of MEXICO CITY, D.F., Mexico
Location Uncertainty Horizontal: 8.1 km; Vertical 5.6 km
Parameters Nph = 169; Dmin = 116.2 km; Rmss = 1.09 seconds; Gp = 23°
Version =
Event ID us 2000ar20

For updates, maps, and technical information
see: Event Page or USGS Earthquake Hazards Program
National Earthquake Information Center
U.S. Geological Survey



Posted by: Kim Noyes <>

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[Volcano_Vista_HS] Daily Announcements Tuesday, September 19th

Good Morning Hawks


Today is Tuesday, September 19, 2017


DODGEBALL:  All teams will play on Tuesday and Wednesday.  Top 8 teams will advance to quarterfinals on Friday and Semifinals and Finals on Friday.  Dr. Bannerman's team looks like the clear favorite.  So come out to the gym and see her get her dodgeball on!!


THE MATH HONOR SOCIETY meeting has changed from Mrs. Alvarado's room to the Gym. Come cheer on your fierce Mu Alpha Theta Dodgeball Team and your Awesome Math Teacher Team fight for the championship.  Look for Mrs. Alvarado to check in and turn in your applications.


TSA We will be meeting in E115 at lunch today! See you there! 


FROM THE LIBRARY: Are any of these book titles your favorite?  The Fault in Our Stars, Paper Towns, Looking for Alaska? Then you must be a John Green fan! Come see Ms. Holmes for a chance to win a Skype visit with author John Green.


Attention Students – Volcano Vista High School has a STUDENT AMBASSADOR program that helps to create a positive climate at Volcano Vista High School. Our first meeting of the year will be Tuesday, September 26 at lunch in room G107.


JUNIORS: Juniors: If you want to take the P.S.A.T. please see Mr. Garcia in E224 during lunch or after school. The cost is $16 cash or check.  The last day to sign up is September 20th and the test day is October 25th.



SWIMMING: There will be an Informational Pre-Season Swim Meeting today from 2:30 - 3:30 PM in the Lecture Hall.


STAFF: Today is Zumba and weights at 2:45 in the dance room.



BOYS SOCCER: will play at Hope Christian at 3:30.

VOLLEYBALL: will play at Rio Grande at 6:30.


We are on an Advisory schedule today. Students will go to their advisory class after 2nd period.

And remember

As always

It's Great to be a Ha


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Sunday, September 17, 2017

[californiadisasters] 1923 Berkeley Hills Firestorm, Sunday, 17 September 2017

"1923 Berkeley Hills Firestorm" reminder
Sunday, 17 September 2017
08:00 PM to 08:00 PM
(GMT) Greenwich Mean Time - Dublin / Edinburgh / Lisbon / London
Alameda County - East Bay Hills
On this date in 1923 a fire began in the Berkeley Hills on the inland side near the summit. Driven by powerful Diablo Winds it roared up over the summit and down into the City of Berkeley where it consumed 584 homes and 56 other structures. The firestorm was stopped in the same manner as the 1991 Oakland Hills Firestorm; the sea breeze finally kicked in.
californiadisasters   Calendar


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Saturday, September 16, 2017

[californiadisasters] On This Date In California Weather History (September 16)

2014: The remains of former Hurricane Odile surged northward through the Gulf of California,
resulting in hot and humid conditions all the way to the coast and easterly flow through the mountains.
The easterly flow collided with the sea breeze in the late morning and afternoon, producing
rare severe thunderstorms from San Diego to the Inland Empire.
Downburst winds downed or damaged hundreds of trees and caused power outages and structural damage in El Cajon, Spring Valley, Clairemont and Kearny Mesa.
Ten aircraft were heavily damaged at Montgomery field by winds in excess of 50 mph.
30 buildings were damaged in the city of San Diego.
A funnel cloud was observed just north of Big Bear Lake.

Monterey received 0.61" of rain.

A heavy thunderstorm hit Barstow.
Flash flooding flowed through the streets of Barstow.
Water washed into 40 homes.
Thunderstorms around San Bernardino dropped numerous lightning strikes, which caused power failures.
Power poles were set on fire.
Several forest fires were also set, but quickly contained.

1965: Trace of snow reported at Yosemite Valley, earliest occurrence of snow on record.

1961: A powerful thunderstorm struck Las Vegas with "tornado-like" winds and huge hailstones that racked up the community from one end to the other.
The Strip was especially hit hard by the sudden fury of the storm, which blasted down virtually all of the big signs in the resort area and tore part of the roof off the Dunes Hotel.
Dozens of homes and businesses in Las Vegas had roofs ripped off and/or windows broken by the winds which had gusts to an estimated 80 mph and golf ball sized hail.

1951: Warmest day in a 20 day stretch of above normal average temperatures that extended from the 8th through the 27th of September in Fresno and Bakersfield.
High reached 101° F that afternoon.
Bakersfield recorded its' warmest temperature of the entire year, 107° on this same date.

1929: A tropical air mass enveloped Southern California.
The Meteorologist in Charge at San Diego reported temperatures of 111° F in the coastal valleys.
A reading of 94° F was reported at San Diego at 4 am on 9.17.

1909: It was 100° F in San Diego, the hottest day since 9.22.1883 (26 years).
It occurred at 9 am.

Source: NWS San Francisco/Monterey, Hanford, Las Vegas, & San Diego



Posted by: Kim Noyes <>

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Friday, September 15, 2017

[ Volcano ] Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 6-12 September 2017


Subject: Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 6-12 September 2017





Sally Kuhn Sennert - Weekly Report Editor (




New Activity/Unrest: Aoba, Vanuatu  | Fernandina, Ecuador  | Nevados de Chillan, Chile  | Villarrica, Chile


Ongoing Activity: Aira, Kyushu (Japan)  | Bagana, Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | Bezymianny, Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | Bogoslof, Fox Islands (USA)  | Cleveland, Chuginadak Island (USA)  | Dukono, Halmahera (Indonesia)  | Ebeko, Paramushir Island (Russia)  | Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | Klyuchevskoy, Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | Langila, New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | Poas, Costa Rica  | Sabancaya, Peru  | Sangay, Ecuador  | Sheveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | Sinabung, Indonesia  | Suwanosejima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | Turrialba, Costa Rica



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.


Note: Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.




New Activity/Unrest



Aoba  | Vanuatu  | 15.4°S, 167.83°E  | Summit elev. 1496 m


On 30 August the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) stated that conditions at Aoba had been changing, increasing the potential for eruptive activity. On 6 September a VGO report noted that activity continued to increase; the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 0-4) signifying that the volcano is in a minor eruption phase. VGO reminded residents and tourists not to approach the volcano within a 3-km radius, and to stay out of areas subject to trade-wind exposure.


Geologic Summary. Aoba, also known as Ambae, is a massive 2500 cu km basaltic shield volcano that is the most voluminous volcano of the New Hebrides archipelago. A pronounced NE-SW-trending rift zone dotted with scoria cones gives the 16 x 38 km island an elongated form. A broad pyroclastic cone containing three crater lakes is located at the summit of the Hawaiian-style shield volcano within the youngest of at least two nested calderas, the largest of which is 6 km in diameter. Post-caldera explosive eruptions formed the summit craters of Lake Voui (also spelled Vui) and Lake Manaro Ngoru about 360 years ago. A tuff cone was constructed within Lake Voui about 60 years later. The latest known flank eruption, about 300 years ago, destroyed the population of the Nduindui area near the western coast.


Source: Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory



Fernandina  | Ecuador  | 0.37°S, 91.55°W  | Summit elev. 1476 m


IG reported that activity at Fernandina began on 4 September with the detection of hybrid earthquakes followed by long-period events, and finally the onset of tremor at 1225 which heralded the beginning of the eruption. Lava emerged from a circumferential fissure near the SSW rim of the caldera and flowed down the S and SW flanks (with no evidence of the flows reaching the sea). A gas plume with low ash content rose 4 km above the crater rim and drifted W. Flows continued to be active on 5 September but by the evening the intensity had weakened. An eruptive plume rose about 2.5 km. Activity decreased significantly by 6 September.


Geologic Summary. Fernandina, the most active of Galápagos volcanoes and the one closest to the Galápagos mantle plume, is a basaltic shield volcano with a deep 5 x 6.5 km summit caldera. The volcano displays the classic "overturned soup bowl" profile of Galápagos shield volcanoes. Its caldera is elongated in a NW-SE direction and formed during several episodes of collapse. Circumferential fissures surround the caldera and were instrumental in growth of the volcano. Reporting has been poor in this uninhabited western end of the archipelago, and even a 1981 eruption was not witnessed at the time. In 1968 the caldera floor dropped 350 m following a major explosive eruption. Subsequent eruptions, mostly from vents located on or near the caldera boundary faults, have produced lava flows inside the caldera as well as those in 1995 that reached the coast from a SW-flank vent. Collapse of a nearly 1 cu km section of the east caldera wall during an eruption in 1988 produced a debris-avalanche deposit that covered much of the caldera floor and absorbed the caldera lake.


Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Nevados de Chillan  | Chile  | 36.863°S, 71.377°W  | Summit elev. 3212 m


According to Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported that during 16-31 August phreato-magmatic explosions at Nevados de Chillán's Volcán Arrau dome complex had decreased. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 3-km radius.


Geologic Summary. The compound volcano of Nevados de Chillán is one of the most active of the Central Andes. Three late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcanoes were constructed along a NNW-SSE line within three nested Pleistocene calderas, which produced ignimbrite sheets extending more than 100 km into the Central Depression of Chile. The largest stratovolcano, dominantly andesitic, Cerro Blanco (Volcán Nevado), is located at the NW end of the group. Volcán Viejo (Volcán Chillán), which was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, occupies the SE end. The new Volcán Nuevo lava-dome complex formed between 1906 and 1945 between the two volcanoes and grew to exceed Volcán Viejo in elevation. The Volcán Arrau dome complex was constructed SE of Volcán Nuevo between 1973 and 1986 and eventually exceeded its height.


Source: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)



Villarrica  | Chile  | 39.42°S, 71.93°W  | Summit elev. 2847 m


In a summary of August activity at Villarrica, Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI) reported that the crater was only partially visible on nine days. On 2 September a small incandescent vent at the bottom of the crater was visible. An explosion at 0924 on 30 August ejected gas and ash that drifted E due to strong winds; observers noted ash and lapilli deposits on the snow during a field visit later that day.


Geologic Summary. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks.


Source: Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI)



Ongoing Activity



Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Summit elev. 1117 m


JMA reported that 30 explosive events at Showa Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 4-11 September ejected material as far as 800 m. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was observed most nights. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).


Geologic Summary. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.


Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Summit elev. 1855 m


Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 September an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.


Geologic Summary. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.


Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Bezymianny  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.972°N, 160.595°E  | Summit elev. 2882 m


KVERT reported that during 1-8 September a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified daily in satellite images. A lava flow continued to flow down the W flank of the dome; incandescence from the dome was visible at night. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).


Geologic Summary. Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny had been considered extinct. The modern volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbors Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral edifice built about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.


Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Bogoslof  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 53.93°N, 168.03°W  | Summit elev. 150 m


AVO reported that during 6-12 September nothing significant was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. The 8 September report noted that the crater lake had been bisected by a narrow isthmus of land. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in one satellite image during 10-11 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.


Geologic Summary. Bogoslof is the emergent summit of a submarine volcano that lies 40 km north of the main Aleutian arc. It rises 1500 m above the Bering Sea floor. Repeated construction and destruction of lava domes at different locations during historical time has greatly modified the appearance of this "Jack-in-the-Box" volcano and has introduced a confusing nomenclature applied during frequent visits of exploring expeditions. The present triangular-shaped, 0.75 x 2 km island consists of remnants of lava domes emplaced from 1796 to 1992. Castle Rock (Old Bogoslof) is a steep-sided pinnacle that is a remnant of a spine from the 1796 eruption. Fire Island (New Bogoslof), a small island located about 600 m NW of Bogoslof Island, is a remnant of a lava dome that was formed in 1883.


Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Summit elev. 1730 m


AVO reported that during 6-12 September nothing significant was observed in often cloudy satellite images and web camera views of Cleveland; minor steaming was noted during 10-11 September. In addition, nothing noteworthy was detected in seismic or infrasound data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.


Geologic Summary. Beautifully symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited, dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Cleveland is joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus. The 1730-m-high Mount Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mount Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.


Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Summit elev. 1229 m


Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-10 and 12 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and NW.


Geologic Summary. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.


Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Summit elev. 1103 m


Based on observations by volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions on 2 September generated ash plumes that rose 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Explosions during 3 and 6-7 September produced ash plumes that rose 2.1 km (6,900 ft) a.s.l. Minor amounts of ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 2-3 and 6-7 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).


Geologic Summary. The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.


Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Summit elev. 1222 m


During 6-12 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater, though a deflationary trend the second half of the week caused the lake level to mostly drop. Several rockfalls and collapses of the inner crater wall veneer were noted during 7-10 September; frequent rockfalls were not uncommon during periods of lake level lowering. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain. HVO noted that cracks running parallel to the coastline underscored the potential for bench collapse into the sea.


Geologic Summary. Kilauea volcano, which overlaps the east flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.


Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Summit elev. 4754 m


KVERT reported that on 7 September explosions at Klyuchevskoy recorded by a webcam generated ash plumes that rose as high as 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 50 km NE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).


Geologic Summary. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.


Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Langila  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.525°S, 148.42°E  | Summit elev. 1330 m


Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-8 and 10-12 September ash plumes from Langila rose 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNW, NW, and SW.


Geologic Summary. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the north and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.


Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Poas  | Costa Rica  | 10.2°N, 84.233°W  | Summit elev. 2708 m


OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at Poás at 0820 on 13 September generated plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim.


Geologic Summary. The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.


Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Summit elev. 5960 m


Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosive activity at Sabancaya was slightly lower compared to the previous week; there was an average of 38 explosions recorded per day during 4-10 September. The earthquakes were dominated by long-period signals, with fewer numbers of hybrid events and emission signals. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 3.5 km above the crater rim and drifted no more than 40 km SE. The MIROVA system detected five thermal anomalies. The report warned the public not to approach the crater within a 12-km radius.


Geologic Summary. Sabancaya, located in the saddle NE of Ampato and SE of Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. The name Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of Plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750.


Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET);

Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Sangay  | Ecuador  | 2.005°S, 78.341°W  | Summit elev. 5286 m


Based on information from the Guayaquil MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 6 September an emission from Sangay rose 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l.


Geologic Summary. The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex.


Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Summit elev. 3283 m


KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified daily in satellite images during 2-3 and 6-7 September. Two explosive events on 7 September generated ash plumes that rose 8-10 km (26,200-32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, SE, and S. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.


Geologic Summary. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.


Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Summit elev. 2460 m


Based on observations by PVMBG, webcam and satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-8 and 12 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, and E.


Geologic Summary. Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical andesitic-to-dacitic edifice is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks in 1912. No confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to explosive eruptions during August-September 2010 that produced ash plumes to 5 km above the summit.


Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Summit elev. 796 m


Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions on 6 September generated plums that rose 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.


Geologic Summary. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.


Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Summit elev. 3340 m


OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at Turrialba at 0730 on 11 September generated a plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted N. Another event at 0820 on 13 September passively produced an ash plume that rose 100 m and drifted NW.


Geologic Summary. Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 3500 years. A series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.


Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)










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